Determining entrepreneurs' characteristics towards psychological empowerment in Saudi Arabia


  • Mohammed A. Al Doghan Department of Management, College of Business, King Faisal University, PO Box 400, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
  • Mahmoud Mohamed Hussein Ali Alayis Department of Management, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 34212, Saudi Arabia
  • Nadia Abdelhamid Abdelmegeed Abdelwahed Department of Management, College of Business, King Faisal University, PO Box 400, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia


Entrepreneurship; Psychological Empowerment; Self-Esteem; Self-Efficacy


Human capital development and emancipation are recognized as the top priorities of not only Saudi Arabia's reforms and new plans but of all nations globally. However, most past research has concentrated on economic, social, and political empowerment, with little or no attention dedicated to psychological empowerment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine, in the context of Saudi Arabia, the effect of the four entrepreneurial attributes of Self-esteem, Self-efficacy, Access to Information, and Job Autonomy on the Psychological Empowerment of the country's entrepreneurs. In this study, the researchers utilized the Meaning, Competence, Self-Determination, and Impact model of Spreitzer Psychological Empowerment. Using a web-based questionnaire issued with the assistance of Chambers of Commerce, the researchers gathered data from the Eastern Province governorates' entrepreneurs. The researchers used Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to examine the data collected from 354 participants in this study. The findings indicate that Self-Esteem positively influences Meaning, Competence, Self-Determination, and Impact. Self-efficacy positively affects Psychological Empowerment (Meaning, Competence and Self- Determination). However, Self-Efficacy does not influence impact. In addition, Access to Information positively influences Psychological Empowerment to a limited extent (Impact). However, Meaning, Competence, and Self-Determination are unaffected. Job Autonomy has a favorable influence on Psychological Empowerment, Competence, Self-Determination, and impact to a limited extent. Nevertheless, Job Autonomy has little effect on meaning. The findings of this study advance the understanding of Psychological Empowerment's drivers and, in practice, aid policymakers in making informed decisions.




How to Cite

Mohammed A. Al Doghan, Mahmoud Mohamed Hussein Ali Alayis, & Nadia Abdelhamid Abdelmegeed Abdelwahed. (2022). Determining entrepreneurs’ characteristics towards psychological empowerment in Saudi Arabia. Revista De Psicología Del Deporte (Journal of Sport Psychology), 31(4), 52–65. Retrieved from